Part 1: A new paradigm in airline pilot training: Evidence Based Training (EBT) concept & principles

Understanding the concept and principles behind evidence based training EBT

Evidence based training is a pilot training concept aimed at developing core competencies that constitute the make-up of a proficient airline pilot. Evidence based training is designed to mitigate the real risks that are observed in daily operations by developing competence and enhancing the competence of pilots to deal with unexpected and unforeseen events.

 

We have broken this article into two parts:

  

Evidence Based Training Concept & Principles

 

The goal of evidence based training is to identify the competencies of a pilot, to further develop them and to evaluate their effectiveness so that he can continue to operate safely. The following nine competencies shall enable pilots to deal with almost any threats and errors which they may be faced with during normal, abnormal or emergency situations.

 

The underlying concept of EBT is resilience. Resilience addresses the ability to return from an undesired situation back to a safe operating level. EBT aims at improving resilience by enhancing the pilot´s competencies to deal with any unexpected situation at any given moment. For this purpose, a set of simulator LOFT scenarios needs to be conceptualized to develop and evaluate these competencies. During these training, the root-cause-analysis is the focal point of the trainer. We no longer protocol the deviation from standard but rather analyze the cause of the deviation.

 

EBT wants to part with the monotonous repetition of maneuvres.

 

The following table contains core competencies and their related performance indicators.

Competency Performance Indicators
 

Application of Procedures

(APK)

 

 

a. Follows SOP’s unless a higher degree of safety dictates otherwise

b. Identifies and applies all operating instructions in a timely manner

c. Correctly uses aircraft systems, controls and instruments

d. Safely manages the aircraft to achieve best value for the operation, including fuel, the environment, passenger comfort and punctuality

e. Identifies the source of operating instructions

 

 

Communication

(COM)

 

 

a. Knows what, how, where, when, how much and with whom he or she needs to communicate

b. Ensures the recipient is ready and able to receive the information

c. Conveys messages and information clearly, accurately, timely and adequately

d. Confirms that the recipient correctly understands important information

e. Listens actively, patiently and demonstrates understanding when receiving information

f. Asks relevant and effective questions and offers suggestions

g. Uses appropriate body language, eye contact and tone and correctly interprets non-verbal communication of others

h. Is receptive to other people´s views and is willing to compromise

 

Aircraft Flight Path Management, Automation

(FPA)

 

 

a. Controls the aircraft using automation with accuracy and smoothness as appropriate to the situation

b. Detects deviations from the desired aircraft trajectory and takes appropriate action

c. Contains the aircraft within the normal flight envelope

d. Manages the flight path to achieve optimum operational performance

e. Maintains the desired flight path during flight using automation whilst managing other tasks and distractions

f. Selects appropriate level and mode of automation in a timely manner considering phase of flight and workload

g. Effectively monitors automation, including engagement and automatic mode transitions

 

 

Aircraft Flight Path Management, Manual control

(FPM)

 

 

a. Controls the aircraft manually with accuracy and smoothness as appropriate to the situation

b. Detects deviations from the desired aircraft trajectory and takes appropriate action

c. Contains the aircraft within the normal flight envelope

d. Controls the aircraft safely using only the relationship between aircraft attitude, speed and thrust

e. Manages the flight path to achieve optimum operational performance

f. Maintains the desired flight path during manual flight whilst managing other tasks and distractions

g. Selects appropriate level and mode of flight guidance systems in a timely manner considering phase of flight and workload

h. Effectively monitors flight guidance systems including engagement and automatic mode transitions

 

 

 

Knowledge

(KNO)

 

 

a. Demonstrates practical and applicable knowledge of limitations and systems and their interaction

b. Demonstrates required knowledge of published operating instructions

c. Demonstrates knowledge of the physical environment, the air traffic environment including routings, weather, airports and the operational infrastructure.

d. Demonstrates appropriate knowledge of applicable legislation

e. Knows where to source required information

f. Demonstrates a positive interest in acquiring knowledge

g. Is able to apply knowledge effectively

 

 

Leadership and Teamwork

(LTW)

 

 

a. Understands and agrees with the crew’s roles and objectives

b. Is approachable, enthusiastic, motivating and considerate of others

c. Uses initiative, gives direction and takes responsibility when required

d. Anticipates other crew members’ needs and carries out instructions when directed

e. Is open and honest about thoughts, concerns and intentions

f. Gives and receives both criticism and praises well, and admits mistakes

g. Confidently says and does what is important for safety

h. Demonstrates empathy, respect and tolerance for other people

i. Involves others in planning and allocates activities fairly and appropriately to abilities

 

 

Problem Solving and Decision Making

(PSD)

 

 

a. Identifies and verifies why things have gone wrong and does not jump to conclusions or make uninformed assumptions

b. Seeks accurate and adequate information from appropriate sources

c. Perseveres in working through a problem without reducing safety

d. Uses appropriate, agreed and timely decision-making processes

e. Applies essential and desirable criteria and prioritizes

f. Considers as many options as practicable

g. Makes decisions when needed, reviews and changes them if required

h. Considers risks but does not take unnecessary risks

i. Improvises appropriately when faced with unforeseen circumstances to achieve the safest outcome

 

 

Situation Awareness

(SAW)

 

 

a. Is aware of the state of the aircraft and its systems

b. Is aware of where the aircraft is and its environment

c. Keeps track of time and fuel

d. Is aware of the condition of people involved in the operation including passengers

e. Develops “what if” scenarios and plans for contingencies

f. Identifies threats to the safety of the aircraft and people, and takes appropriate action

 

 

Workload Management

(WLM)

 

 

a. Is calm, relaxed, careful and not impulsive

b. Plans, Prepares, prioritizes and schedules tasks effectively

c. Manages time efficiently when carrying out tasks

d. Offers and accepts assistance, delegates when necessary and asks for help early

e. Reviews, monitors and cross-checks actions conscientiously

f. Ensures tasks are completed

g. Manages interruptions, distractions, variations and failures effectively

 

 

Part 2 of our series on evidence based training, a new paradigm in airline pilot training is available here. In it, we will cover important information about how pilots should prepare for their simulator event and what is expected of them during EBT.

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